|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 1-7
Prevalence of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients: A meta-analysis
Samira Tarashi1, Mohsen Heidary2, Hossein Dabiri3, Mohammad Javad Nasiri3
1 Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||29-Nov-2017|
Dr. Hossein Dabiri
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burned patients is one of the main public health problems worldwide. Although drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burn units is frequent in some countries and unusual in others, the level of this conditions is not precisely known in Iran. Imipenem is one of the most potent agents against P. aeruginosa. Imipenem resistance is a major obstacle to treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. We aimed to determine the true prevalence of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Meta-Analyses statement. Moreover, resistance to several potent anti-P. aerugi nosa drugs were indicated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for the disc diffusion method. Several databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Magiran, Iranmedex, and science direct were searched to get studies addressing drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients from March 2006 to May 2015. A total of 34 reports available from different areas of Iran were included in the current study. The meta-analyses showed that 54.9% of P. aeruginosa were resistant to imipenem. The most common resistance was seen against ceftazidime (66.9%), followed by ciprofloxacin (52.9%) and cefepime (52.3%). It is necessary to know the epidemiology of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa because it can promote control strategies for decreasing their prevalence. The high incidence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iran emphasizes the need for precise drug susceptibility testing, continuous monitoring of drug resistance, especially in burn units, use of sensitive methods for the laboratory diagnosis, and close relation between physician and laboratories.
Keywords: Burn, imipenem, Iran, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
|How to cite this article:|
Tarashi S, Heidary M, Dabiri H, Nasiri MJ. Prevalence of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients: A meta-analysis. Arch Trauma Res 2017;6:1-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Tarashi S, Heidary M, Dabiri H, Nasiri MJ. Prevalence of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients: A meta-analysis. Arch Trauma Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 16];6:1-7. Available from: http://www.archtrauma.com/text.asp?2017/6/3/1/219403
| Introduction|| |
Burn infections are one of the most prevalent and destructive health problems in many countries of the world, particularly in developing countries like Iran, where in some cases infection control programs are ignored. Patients with serious burn injury require immediate care to minimize complications. One of the most remarkable and serious complications of burn is wound infections. It is estimated that about 75% of the mortality in burn injuries contributes to the infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report in 2013, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp. have the appearance as significant pathogens caused infection in the burn unit. The CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network estimates that approximately 8% of all healthcare-associated infections reported are caused by P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic therapy is considered as the major intervention in the treatment and management of burn infections. Carbapenems including imipenem and meropenem are the most important antibiotics used to treat P. aeruginosa infections. Imipenem is one of the most potent agents against P. aeruginosa. Imipenem resistance is a major obstacle to treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Increasing antibiotic resistance is a serious problem for both patients and health-care systems., Recently, this concern has been further intensified by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains with the mortality rate >40%–50%., Thereby, in the past decade, major attempt has been done to establish new strategies to progress treatment of burned patients. Although numerous studies have been published in burn wound infections and antibiotic resistance in Iran, none of them has studied all of the countries within a comprehensive study. Having comprehensive and reliable data on antibiotic susceptibility status of P. aeruginosa is crucial for effective treatment and successful infection control program against this bacterium, especially in regions where an antibiotic therapy is empirical, and infection control strategy is ignored. The aim of the present study was to determine the true prevalence of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Meta-Analyses statement. Moreover, resistance to several potent anti-P. aerugi nosa drugs were indicated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines for the disc diffusion method.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A database was constructed to evaluate the prevalence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients from March 2006 to May 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Iranmedex, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database. The search was confined to original articles published in English and Persian that present the prevalence or incidence of P. aeruginosa in Iranian burned patients. The following keywords from Medical Subject Headings or titles or abstracts were used with the help of Boolean operators (and, or): P. aeruginosa, burned patients, Iran drug susceptibility, and drug resistance. The authors searched both English published articles and relevant Persian articles. All published data in the Persian language including Magiran, Iranian National Library, Scientific Information Database, and Iranmedex were searched.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
All research articles presenting the prevalence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burned patients in Iran were selected. Based on titles, abstracts, and full papers, the collection of articles for review was performed. Method of antibiotic susceptibility in all of included studies was based on CLSI guidelines for P. aeruginosa against anti-P. aeruginosa drugs including imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, and aztreonam. Studies were excluded from analysis for any of the following reasons: articles noted only on non-P. aeruginosa; studies done on regions except Iran; studies checking the nonburned patient; studies that were not performed based on the CLSI guidelines and do not use the anti-P. aeruginosa drugs. Review articles, congress abstracts, meta-analyses, or systematic reviews, studies reported in languages other than English or Persian, articles available only in abstract form and also duplicate publication of the same study were excluded.
For all studies, the data including year of publication, first author, study setting, number of burned patients, and drug resistance status were extracted by two persons, independently. The term drug resistance among P. aeruginosa refers to isolates that according to the CLSI guidelines show resistance to suitable antimicrobial tests and grow in the presence of antimicrobial agents that would normally kill them or limit their growth.
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software Version 2.0 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ) was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burned patients in Iran was reported by 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Egger weighted regression and Begg's rank correlation methods were used to assess possible publication bias. The value of P < 0.05 was considered indicative of a statistically significant publication bias. Random effects models were chosen according to the Cochrane Q test and I2 tests, taking into account the possibility of heterogeneity between studies.
| Results|| |
A total of 1071 research articles were selected [Figure 1]. Based on title and abstract evaluation, 652 of them were excluded, and 419 for full-paper evaluation were retained. After this screening, 34 articles describing the prevalence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burned patients in Iran are selected for analysis and presented in [Table 1]. Of the included articles, 11 articles were considered the age and 13 articles reported the gender of the patients. Based on these articles, 1021 males and 617 females with a mean age between 20 and 40 years [Table 1] were analyzed. All 34 articles contained information for drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burned patient in Iran. All studies had been used the disc agar diffusion method according to the CLSI protocols. Considering the location of the studies, most of the studies were conducted in Tehran (n = 15) and compared with studies in Shiraz and Ahvaz (each of them n = 3), Sanandaj (each n = 2), Sari, Hamadan, Qom, Ilam, Kerman, Urmia, Mashhad, Tabriz, Guilan, and Yazd (each n = 1). [Figure 2] shows the distribution of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa in different regions of Iran. The prevalence of imipenem resistance was found to be 54.9% (95% CI, 46.9–62.7). However, evident heterogeneity was observed (P < 0.226). [Figure 3] shows the forest plot of the meta-analysis on imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. As shown in [Figure 4], some evidence for the publication bias was observed (P = 0.241 for Begg's rank correlation analysis; P = 0.472 for Egger weighted regression analysis). Common data of each selected studies such as first author, published time, province, number of P. aeruginosa, and number of imipenem resistance were shown in [Table 1]. Resistance to anti-P. aeruginosa drugs that have been selected according to the CLSI guidelines for the disc diffusion method was shown in [Table 1]. Considering resistance to anti-P. aeruginosa drugs, the most common resistance was seen against ceftazidime (66.9%), followed by ciprofloxacin (52.9%), and cefepime (52.3%).
|Figure 2: Distribution of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different regions of Iran|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Forest plot of the meta-analysis on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CI: confidence interval|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Funnel plot of the meta-analysis on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
P. aeruginosa is one of the most important nosocomial agents and clinical isolates of this opportunistic pathogen cause serious infections in burn units. The current meta-analysis showed the prevalence and distribution of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in burned patients in Iran. Our analyses showed that 54.9% of the P. aeruginosa strains from burned patients were resistant to imipenem. Considering that the carbapenems are still the drug of choice for MDR P. aeruginosa, this high rate of resistance is very alarming. Poorabbas et al. performed a study in Iran on antibiotic resistance and reported resistance to imipenem (85%), ciprofloxacin (76%), amikacin (70%), gentamicin (67%), cefepime (40%), and ceftazidime (74%) in burn patients. Other study from India, in 2015, indicated resistance to gentamicin (84%), ceftazidime (76.79%), amikacin (73.2%), ciprofloxacin (71.4%), and imipenem (61%) in burn patients. The development of imipenem resistance among P. aeruginosa strains in burn units may contribute to the factors such as the severity of burn infection which result in long hospitalization time in particular intensive care unit stay, previous broad-spectra antibiotics use or monotherapy that increase risk of resistance, poor laboratory diagnosis of resistance isolates that can cause to increase transferring resistance to other susceptible germs and higher costs that may lead to prescribe inappropriate and cheaper drug or use of monotherapy., Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa isolates are in association with resistance to other antibiotic classes such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams probably due to similar resistance mechanisms and make treatment very challenging., Hence, identifying and detection of carbapenem-resistant strains and using the infection control procedures are very important. In addition, resistance can be transferred to P. aeruginosa by mobile elements such as plasmids or integrons. In low hygiene condition on burn units, colonization of other microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii may lead to transfer the resistance coding elements to the P. aeruginosa., According to the geographic areas, classified analyses were done in the current study. Most of the studies were performed in Tehran, where high rates of imipenem resistance (65.8%) compared to other regions have been reported by researchers. These findings may supported that Tehran, the capital of Iran, with many health-care centers play a referral role for other regions of Iran and burned patients with drug-resistant P. aeruginosa are mostly referred to this province. The Central and Northwest of Iran showed almost high imipenem resistance (50%), whereas the South and West of Iran were moderate (almost 30%) and the East of Iran was experienced the lowest rate of imipenem resistance (<20%). Based on this finding, distribution of imipenem resistance in Iran is not homogeneous that reported in range of 0% (Southeast of Iran) to 88.5% (West of Iran). This pattern is similar to India where based on different studies the imipenem-resistance rate varies from 10% to 95.7%. According to data released from CDC, several ways exist to prevent drug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections including knowledge about resistance trends in a specific region, and coordinating the local and regional infection control efforts; the results should be made available more rapidly to clinicians for suitable treatment. Moreover, hospitalization time should be shortened if possible; effective and appropriate antibiotic policies should be implemented; staff should be educated about the significance of right antibiotic use; and some strategies are necessary to optimize the use of antibiotics, for example, the prescription of carbapenem., Finally, essentials of the standard precautions should be taken. Every assay should be done to reduce spreading and emerging of resistant organisms. We suggest that the infection control program recommended by the World Health Organization be implemented according to local conditions to be more effective. In the other words, countries with low- and middle-income are not able to apply infection control programs as developed countries in terms of cost and cultural requirements., Close cooperation of clinicians with the microbiology laboratory, rapid reporting, and effective treatment using combination regimens is necessary to prevent spread of resistant P. aeruginosa isolates in burned patients.,, However, combination regimens should be used very carefully only in inpatient who has indication, otherwise may lead to new resistance. The limitations of this review should be discussed as follows: (a) it cannot fully represent the prevalence of imipenem resistance in P. aeruginosa in Iran due to the imipenem resistance is not yet investigated in many areas of Iran. (b) The potential influence of age and sex could not be analyzed because of the limited information obtained from the studied articles. (c) Only the disc diffusion test was used in selected studies and other confirmatory tests such as E-test or minimal inhibitory concentration were not used. (d) The heterogeneity exists among the included studies. (e) As with any meta-analysis, limitations associated with potential publication bias should be considered.
| Conclusion|| |
This meta-analysis showed that P. aeruginosa resistance was high among isolates with burn infection, which may lead to more cost and high rate of mortality. Thereby, attention to infection control guidelines, creating close relation between physicians and laboratory, and continuous monitoring of drug resistance are highly recommended. It is necessary to know the epidemiology of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa because it can promote control strategies for decreasing their prevalence. The high incidence of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa in Iran emphasizes the need for precise drug susceptibility testing, continuous monitoring of drug resistance, especially in burn units, use of sensitive methods for the laboratory diagnosis, and close relation between physician and laboratories.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Khoshnood S, Eslami G, Hashemi A, Bahramian A, Heidary M, Yousefi N, et al
. Distribution of aminoglycoside resistance genes among Acinetobacter baumannii
strains isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis 2017;5:1-5. [DOI: 10.5812/pedinfect. 57263].
Lari AR, Alaghehbandan R. Nosocomial infections in an Iranian burn care center. Burns 2000;26:737-40.
Control CFD, Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2013.
Bahar MA, Jamali S, Samadikuchaksaraei A. Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carry metallo-β-lactamase gene bla VIM in a level I Iranian burn hospital. Burns 2010;36:826-30. [DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2009.10.011].
Heidary M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Khoshnood S, Roshani M, Azimi H, et al
. The antibacterial activity of Iranian plants extracts against metallo beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains. J Paramed Sci 2016;7:13-19.
Rafla K, Tredget EE. Infection control in the burn unit. Burns 2011;37:5-15.
Japoni A, Alborzi A, Kalani M, Nasiri J, Hayati M, Farshad S, et al.
Susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burn patients in the South of Iran. Burns 2006;32:343-7.
Kohanteb J, Dayaghi M, Motazedian M, Ghayumi MA. Comparison of biotyping and antibiotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from patients with burn wound infection and nosocomial pneumonia in Shiraz, Iran. Pak J Biol Sci 2007;10:1817-22.
Mahini F, Khosravi A. MBL-producing P. aeruginosa
strains isolated from patients with burns, infections and identify genes of blaIMP and blaVIM by PCR technique. Iran J Microbiol 2007;1:23-31.
Owlia P, Bahar MA, Saderi H, Amini H. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
infections in burn patients. J Med Counc Iran 2007;25:26-33.
Khorasani G, Salehifar E, Eslami G. Profile of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care referral burn centre in Iran: Emergence of citrobacter freundii as a common microorganism. Burns 2008;34:947-52.
Mashouf RY, Zamani A, Farahani HS. Diagnostic multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
from the skin biopsy specimens in burn wound infections and detection of antibiotic susceptibility. Saudi Med J 2008;29:1109-14.
Saderi H, Karimi Z, Owlia P, Bahar MA, Rad SM. Phenotypic detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burned patients. Iran J Pathol 2008;3:20-4.
Mirsalhian A, Faizabadi MM, Akbari Nakhjavani F, Jabalameli F, Goli HR. Frequency broad spectrum beta-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
in burn patients isolated. Tehran Univ Med J 2008;66:333-7.
Khosravi AD, Mihani F. Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burn patients in Ahwaz, Iran. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2008;60:125-8.
Afrasiabian SH, Heidari M. Burn wound infections and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients admitted to burn unit of Tohid hospital in Sanandaj. J Infect Trop Dis 2008;42:61-5.
Zolfaghari MR, Khodadad Motlagh M, Aghaee S, Heidarpour A. Factors affecting bacterial infections after burns in burn unit of Nekoii-Hedayati hospital in Qom, 2009-2010. J Qom Univ Med Sci 2011;5:23-9.
Mirsalehian A, Feizabadi M, Nakhjavani FA, Jabalameli F, Goli H, Kalantari N, et al.
Detection of VEB-1, OXA-10 and PER-1 genotypes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burn patients. Burns 2010;36:70-4.
Alipour T, Sadeghifard N, Amirmozafari N, Ghafurian S, Abdulamir AS, Mohebi R, et al
. Incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and frequency of oxa-2 and oxa-10 genes. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2010;4:3202-7.
Saderi H, Lotfalipour H, Owlia P, Salimi H. Detection of metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Lab Med 2010;41:609-12.
Jazani N, Babazadeh H, Sabah Z, Zartoshti M. The evaluation of antibiotic resistance to cefepime in hospital isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
. J Med Biomed Sci 2010;9:17.
Jabalameli F, Mirsalehian A, Sotoudeh N, Jabalameli L, Aligholi M, Khoramian B, et al.
Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) fingerprinting (MLVF) and antibacterial resistance profiles of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
among burnt patients in Tehran. Burns 2011;37:1202-7.
Bayat M, Zia M, Haghi M, Hemmatyar G, Toghyani M. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli
, Staphylococcus aureus
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burnt patients in Urmia, Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011;5:996-1000.
Ranjbar R, Owlia P, Saderi H, Mansouri S, Jonaidi-Jafari N, Izadi M, et al.
Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burned patients hospitalized in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran. Acta Med Iran 2011;49:675-9.
Rezaei E, Safari H, Naderinasab M, Aliakbarian H. Common pathogens in burn wound and changes in their drug sensitivity. Burns 2011;37:805-7.
Vahdani M, Azimi L, Asghari B, Bazmi F, Rastegar Lari A. Phenotypic screening of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase and metallo-ß-lactamase in multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
from infected burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2012;25:78-81.
Sepehriseresht S, Boroumand MA, Pourgholi L, Sotoudeh Anvari M, Habibi E, Sattarzadeh Tabrizi M, et al.
Detection of vim- and ipm-type metallo-beta-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
clinical isolates. Arch Iran Med 2012;15:670-3.
Nikokar I, Tishayar A, Flakiyan Z, Alijani K, Rehana-Banisaeed S, Hossinpour M, et al.
Antibiotic resistance and frequency of class 1 integrons among Pseudomonas aeruginosa
, isolated from burn patients in Guilan, Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2013;5:36-41.
Jafari M, Fallah F, Borhan RS, Navidinia M, Karimi A, Tabatabaei SR, et al
. The first report of CMY, aac (6′)-Ib and 16S rRNA methylase genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolates from Iran. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis 2013;1:109-12.
Fallah F, Borhan RS, Hashemi A. Brief communication detection of bla (IMP) and bla (VIM) metallo-β-lactamases genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains. Int J Burns Trauma 2013;3:122-4.
Moazami-Goudarzi S, Eftekhar F. Assessment of carbapenem susceptibility and multidrug-resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
burn isolates in Tehran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2013;6:162-5.
Vala M, Hallajzadeh M, Fallah F, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H. Characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers among non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria isolated from burnt patients. Arch Hyg Sci 2013;2:1-6.
Goudarzi M, Azad M, Seyedjavadi SS, Goudarzi G, Rashidan M. Study of flagellin profiling in multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(MDRPA) isolated from burn wound infections, Tehran, Iran. J Paramed Sci 2014;5:40-5.
Akhavan-Tafti F, Eslami G, Zandi H, Mousavi SM, Zarei M. Prevalence of blaVIM blaNDM and blaIPM lactamases in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
infection from burn wounds in Shahid Sadughi hospital in Yazd. J Isfahan Univ Med Sci 2013;31:1955-64.
Farshadzadeh Z, Khosravi AD, Alavi SM, Parhizgari N, Hoveizavi H. Spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of blaOXA-10, blaPER-1 and blaCTX-M in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burn patients. Burns 2014;40:1575-80.
Neyestanaki DK, Mirsalehian A, Rezagholizadeh F, Jabalameli F, Taherikalani M, Emaneini M, et al.
Determination of extended spectrum beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases and ampC-beta-lactamases among carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burn patients. Burns 2014;40:1556-61.
Japoni A, Anvarinejad M, Farshad S, Giammanco GM, Rafaatpour N, Alipour E, et al.
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and molecular epidemiology of metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
strains isolated from burn patients. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014;16:e10916.
Hakemi Vala M, Hallajzadeh M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Tarhani M, Sattarzadeh Tabrizi M, et al.
Detection of ambler class A, B and D ß-lactamases among Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Acinetobacter baumannii
clinical isolates from burn patients. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2014;27:8-13.
Roshani M, Heidary M, Goudarzi H, Hashemi A, Eslami G, Yousefi N. Investigating the antibacterial effect of methanol and acetone extracts of Urtica dioica
and Zataria Multiflora
against metallo beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
. SJIMU 2016;24:70-8.
Soltani J, Poorabbas B, Miri N, Mardaneh J. Health care associated infections, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome: A surveillance study from Sanandaj, Iran. World J Clin Cases 2016;4:63-70.
Poorabbas B, Mardaneh J, Rezaei Z, Kalani M, Pouladfar G, Alami MH, et al.
Nosocomial infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus
and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2015;7:127-35.
Bhatt P, Rathi KR, Hazra S, Sharma A, Shete V. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
infection in burn patients at a tertiary care centre. Indian J Burns 2015;23:56. [Full text]
Ozkurt Z, Ertek M, Erol S, Altoparlak U, Akcay MN. The risk factors for acquisition of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
in the burn unit. Burns 2005;31:870-3.
Nathwani D, Raman G, Sulham K, Gavaghan M, Menon V. Clinical and economic consequences of hospital-acquired resistant and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2014;3:32.
Morita Y, Tomida J, Kawamura Y. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
to antimicrobials. Front Microbiol 2014;4:422.
Hamouda A, Findlay J, Amyes SG. Imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
of animal origin. J Chemother 2012;24:59-60.
Tarashi S, Goudarzi H, Erfanimanesh S, Pormohammad A, Hashemi A. Phenotypic and molecular detection of metallo-beta-lactamase genes among imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Acinetobacter baumannii
strains isolated from patients with burn injuries. Arch Clin Infect Dis 2016;11:1-6. [DOI: 10.5812/archcid. 39036].
Heidary M, Bahramian A, Hashemi A, Goudarzi M, Omrani VF, Eslami G, et al.
Detection of acrA, acrB, aac(6')-ib-cr, and qepA genes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli
and Klebsiella pneumoniae
. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2017;64:63-9.
Heidary M, Salimi Chirani A, Khoshnood S, Eslami G, Atyabi SM, Nazem H, et al.
Molecular detection of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes in Acinetobacter baumannii
clinical isolates. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2017;64:143-50.
Patel H, Garala R. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated at SSG hospital Baroda. J Res Med Dent Sci 2014;2:84-7.
Hakemi-Vala M, Eslamzadeh A, Bejestany FB, Asgarpanah J, Heidary M, Khoshnood S. Preliminary evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of total extract and fractions of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous from the aerial parts of Salvia aegyptiaca
. Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect 2017. [In Press]. [DOI: 10.5812/ajcmi. 43457].
Anvarinejad M, Japoni A, Rafaatpour N, Mardaneh J, Abbasi P, Amin Shahidi M, et al.
Burn patients infected with metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
: Multidrug-resistant strains. Arch Trauma Res 2014;3:e18182.
Sadredinamin M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Tarashi S, Yousefi Nojookambari N, Taki E. Detection of blaIMP, blaVIM and OprD genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burn patients. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016;26:181-6.
World Health Organization. A WHO Plan for Burn Prevention and Care. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
Sadredinamin M, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H, Tarashi S, Nojookambari NY, Erfanimanesh S. Detection of ISPa1328 and ISPpu21, two novel insertion sequences in the OprD porin and bla IMP-1 gene among metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from burn patients. Arch Trauma Res 2016;6:1-7. [DOI: 10.5812/atr. 36239].
Weber J, McManus A, Nursing Committee of the International Society for Burn Injuries. Infection control in burn patients. Burns 2004;30:A16-24.
Ducel G, Fabry J, Nicolle L. Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections: A Practical Guide. 2nd
Arslan E, Dalay C, Yavuz M, Göcenler L, Acartürk S. Gram-negative bacterial surveillance in burn patients. Proteus 1999;95:53.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]